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                          高鐵的核心技術有哪些

                          2015-08-21 15:53:12 來源:京鐵辦

                          高鐵(原名高速鐵路),是指通過改造原有線路(直線化、軌距標準化),使最高營運速率達到不小于每小時200公里,或者專門修建新的“高速新線”,使營運速率達到每小時至少250公里的鐵路系統。高速鐵路除了在列車在營運達到一定速度標準外,車輛、路軌、操作都需要配合提升。

                            高鐵定義

                            高鐵(原名高速鐵路),是指通過改造原有線路(直線化、軌距標準化),使最高營運速率達到不小于每小時200公里,或者專門修建新的“高速新線”,使營運速率達到每小時至少250公里的鐵路系統。高速鐵路除了在列車在營運達到一定速度標準外,車輛、路軌、操作都需要配合提升。

                            中國2014年1月1日起實施的《鐵路安全管理條例》規定,高速鐵路(高鐵)是指設計開行時速250公里以上(含預留),并且初期運營時速200公里以上的客運列車專線鐵路。

                            世界上首條高鐵

                            世界上首條出現的高速鐵路是日本的新干線,于1964年正式營運。日系新干線列車由川崎重工建造,行駛在東京-名古屋-京都-大阪的東海道新干線,營運速度每小時271公里,營運最高時速300公里。

                            此后高鐵技術得到各個國家的重視,高鐵在世界各個城市遍地開花,緣起法國的TGV技術、緣起德國的ICE技術、緣起西班牙的Talgo技術以及得益于航空航天技術發展而誕生的磁懸浮技術都為高鐵速度的提升探索了思路和方式。而中國研究的CRH技術是高鐵科技領域的又一重大突破。本文就是向各位介紹CRH技術,而CRH技術正是高鐵與普通鐵路區分的關鍵技術因素之一。

                            高鐵動車的基本組成

                            1.車體

                            車體的作用是安裝基礎和承載骨架。現代動車組車體均采用整體承載的鋼結構或者輕金屬結構,以實現在最輕的自重下滿足強度和剛度要求。

                            2.轉向架

                            轉向架有動力轉向架和非動力轉向架之分。其作用是承載、轉向、減振、制動,動力轉向架還具有驅動的功能。轉向架由構架、懸掛裝置、輪對軸箱裝置和基礎制動裝置等組成。而動力轉向架還有驅動裝置。

                            3.牽引傳動控制系統

                            作用是傳遞能量和運行控制。牽引傳動系統主要是指列車的電氣設備,分為傳動電路系統、輔助電路系統和電子與控制電路系統。主傳動電路系統主要包括主變壓器、主變流器、牽引電機。輔助電路系統主要包括通風冷卻裝置、車內供電裝置。

                            4.制動裝置

                            該裝置包括機械部分、空氣管路部分和電氣控制部分。制動方式有空氣制動和電氣制動,不同的制動方式有不同的制動裝置。

                            5.車端連接裝置

                            該裝置包括各種車購緩沖裝置、鉸接裝置和風擋等。作用是連接車輛成列及緩和縱向沖擊。

                            6.受流裝置

                            動車組均采用受電弓受流器。

                            7.車輛內部設備和駕駛室設備

                            這里面就是些類似于“家具”一樣的東西了,如空調、燈、座椅等。

                            CRH核心技術點

                            動車本質上是人類科學技術水平的集中體現,里面的所有設備裝置都是科技在鐵路運輸上的應用。所以談到動車組的核心技術,很多都是在別的地方有應用的。

                            動車組核心的核心是牽引傳動系統

                            我國動車組均采用交直交傳動,接觸網上的交流電經過受電弓和變壓器之后,被整流成直流,再逆變成交流通入異步牽引電機。

                            弓網關系

                            高速列車在運行的時候,列車速度越高,受電弓與接觸網的良好接觸就越難實現,這就是弓網關系。

                            輪軌關系(轉向架)

                            高速下,輪對與鋼軌之間的蠕滑、輪軌動力學、運動穩定性、曲線通過性能,這些基本上可以歸納到轉向架中。

                            變流技術

                            要實現整流和逆變最根本的是器件,所以動車的運行必須要大功率的可控器件。其中以IGBT為代表。其次,逆變器和整流器的拓撲結構決定了輸出的性能。再者,整流器和逆變器的控制技術也非常重要,而且控制技術牽涉到整車的運行策略和工況,難度非常高。

                            牽引電機控制技術

                            對牽引電機的控制一般是將逆變器和電機作為整體進行控制的,現在最成熟的兩種控制方法一個是矢量控制一個是直接轉矩控制。在具體的控制方法中,還有很多實現上的困難。在其中,會添加一些技術,比如無傳感器技術,非線性解耦等。

                            再生制動

                            再生制動是一種非常環保的制動技術,它利用列車的動能發電,將電能返送到電網中去。再生制動技術本質上是控制技術,它不需要額外的主電氣設備,它只是將電動機作為發電機,逆變器作為整流器,整流器作為逆變器,參照上圖。再生制動技術中最主要的,是如何保證返送回電網的電能的質量。

                            網絡控制系統和列車運行系統

                            動車組通常動力較為分散,設備都分布在不同的車廂上,在高速運行中,如何使設備協調工作,消除延時,這個是網絡控制系統解決的。其中涉及到信號傳輸、通信協議、車載計算機等技術。

                            至于列車運行系統主要針對外部和列車的協調。這其中包括區間閉塞技術、無線通信技術。

                            輔助供電系統

                            這段不多說,詳情見目前火車是如何供電的。

                            動車組CRH和和諧電HXD系列。動車組的牽引供電系統由接觸網經受電弓到牽引變壓器,牽引變壓器變壓后到牽引整流器,然后是牽引逆變器,最后到牽引電機。這是牽引供電系統。而車廂內照明、空氣制動機和列車控制系統供電來源是由輔助變流器得到,在變壓器后面有另一個繞組接出,接上輔助變流器。而控制電路和照明供電有專門的蓄電池備用。

                            材料技術

                            車窗、車體、轉向架、輪對、閘瓦都需要材料技術的支撐。這個無需贅言。

                            此外,高鐵和普通鐵路還有很大差別。

                            1.高速鐵路使用無砟軌道(在中國是設計時速超過250km/h的高速鐵路使用無渣軌道,設計時速200-250km/h的客運專線很多使用的是有砟軌道)。

                            普通鐵路軌道是在小塊石頭堆砌的基礎上,再鋪設枕木或水泥枕木,被稱為有砟軌道。京滬高鐵用的是無砟軌道,路基不用碎石,鐵軌、軌枕直接鋪在混凝土路上,整條線路水平誤差不超過0.1毫米。在軌道方面,大量采用長距離無縫鋼軌。也就是在高鐵上幾乎聽不到傳統火車的哐當哐當的聲音。沒有了鋼軌接縫,對于列車速度的提高也有幫助。而且道岔都采用高速可動心道岔。其通過速度比普通道岔高很多。且高速鐵路線路彎道更少,火車盡可能的是直線。(需要說明的是無砟軌道的技術僅日本和德國擁有,中國缺乏軌道板制造技術,遂選擇引進外國技術及自主研發。)

                            2.高速鐵路使用的列車是動力分散式動車組。

                            動力分布式列車是鐵路列車的一種和動力集中式相對的牽引方式,特點是動力來源分散在列車各個車廂上的發動機,而不是集中在機車上,中國的“和諧號”動車組是以架空電纜方式提供電力來驅動牽引電動機的電力動車組。而普通列車是由火車頭牽引的,這是動力集中式的牽引方式。

                            3.信號控制系統不同。

                            中國列車控制系統,簡稱CTCS,是中國鐵路參照歐洲列車控制系統,并結合中國國情構建的技術體系。使用數字控制信號,比傳統的模擬信號更加的精確和穩定,確保列車運行安全。

                            4.定價和定位不同。

                            P.S:需要注意的是磁懸浮列車也屬于高速鐵路的一種。

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