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                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                          來源:路訊

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                            劉語冰教授工作簡歷

                            中國交通運輸協會新技術促進分會常務專家理事,原鐵道部標準計量研究所副所長、原鐵道部專業設計院軌道處總工程師。自1954年開始,先后在鐵道部設計局定型設計事務所、鐵道科學研究院和鐵道部專業設計院從事鐵路道岔的設計、科研和標準化工作。曾參與建國前從不同國家進口的道岔標準的簡統工作;參與鐵路恢復時期模仿國外的道岔設計工作;組織自主的道岔設計工作;組織自主的“六二型”和“七五型”道岔標準化工作;參與高錳鋼整鑄轍叉的研究和組織高錳鋼整鑄轍叉的系列設計工作;參與矮型特種斷面鋼軌的設計和主持矮型斷面尖軌跟端鍛造工藝的研究;參與和協助提速道岔的設計工作;參與和協助高速鐵路大號數道岔的設計工作;主持研制成功鍛焊轍叉、高強耐磨鋼鋃板轍叉和鋃尖尖軌。編寫《道岔構造和設計》(上、下冊)、《日本高速鐵路軌道概況》和《鐵路道岔論文集》三部專著。

                            

                            我國城市地鐵自北京地鐵1號線1969年10月1日通車以來,隨著我國城鎮化的發展,截至2014年底全國修建運營的地鐵線路95條,通車里程達到2900Km,在運營的地鐵線路中使用的道岔基本上都是引用國鐵的道岔或有些做了局部的修改,四十五年來道岔結構基本上沒有創新,并發現存在的問題有:

                            1、地鐵正線高峰時必需縮短折返時間,以增加地鐵動車組的運能。

                            2、地鐵正線道岔尖軌的跟端采用活接頭,道岔不能焊接成無縫道岔致使地鐵正線不能鋪設跨區間超長無縫線路,道岔成為地鐵的噪音源。

                            3、地鐵正線道岔尖軌跟端采用固定接頭時,尖軌尖端軌距無加寬,尖軌尖端呈鋸齒型磨耗,使用壽命過短;尖軌長度過長用二臺轉轍機牽引仍存在不足位移和尖軌的反彈。

                            4、地鐵正線道岔用高錳鋼轍叉,高錳鋼轍叉與高碳鋼鋼軌難以焊接,難以實施無縫道岔,且高錳鋼轍叉較能與高碳鋼鋼軌焊接的合金鋼轍叉使用壽命低二倍。

                            5、地鐵車輛段道岔僅使用單一的單開道岔,致使車輛段道岔咽喉區占用土地過多,和鋪設軌道過多。

                            6、地鐵既有的道岔品種雜亂,沒有統一的標準,造成生產制造和維修養護的困難。

                            目前城市地鐵發展迅速,為了使地鐵更多、更快、更好、更省的發展,我公司擬與一貫創新城市的深圳軌道辦合作,并借深圳地鐵的平臺,推廣到全國地鐵,特提出地鐵提速、消噪、延壽、省土地、減軌道、系列化道岔創新、升級和轉型換代的產品設計。

                            在目前地鐵道岔使用基礎上,提出服務于社會的具有行業技術領先,保證行車安全性的系列化道岔創新設計內容有:

                            1、道岔的提速

                            目前地鐵正線上使用9號單開道岔,個別地鐵正線折返站使用12號單開道岔。這兩種道岔是直線或曲線尖軌和直線轍叉。為了提高道岔的正線和側線容許速度,采用曲線尖軌、曲線轍叉。由于9號單開道岔提高側線通過速度后與12號既有道岔相近。為簡統道岔品種,取消12號單開道岔,見表1.

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                            目前地鐵車輛段使用7號單開道岔,為了改善內接條件、提高道岔的側線容許速度,采用曲線尖軌和曲線轍叉,見表2.

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                            2、道岔的消噪

                            目前有些地鐵道岔焊接為無縫道岔。無縫道岔與區間無縫線路焊接便成為跨區間無縫線路。跨區間無縫線路是正線上沒有鋼軌接頭,因此,可以消除地鐵洞內的直接噪音源。

                            消噪的跨區間無縫線路有兩種類型,一種是放散式的跨區間無縫線路,另一種是自應力式的跨區間無縫線路。日本的跨區間無縫線路是采用放散式的。采用放散式的跨區間無縫線路在正線上每2km設置一組鋼軌伸縮器,同時在道岔的后部也設置一組鋼軌伸縮器。德國和我國國鐵跨區間無縫線路是采用自應力式的。采用自應力式的跨區間無縫線路,在區間不設鋼軌伸縮器,但是要求道岔側股鋼軌設伸縮器。因此,地鐵的設計單位應該明確規定跨區間無縫線路是選用放散式或自應力式。地鐵選用放散式跨區間無縫線路時,區間線路、大跨度鋼橋和道岔的尾部應有不同伸縮量的鋼軌伸縮器。如選用自應力式跨區間無縫線路,區間線路不設鋼軌伸縮器,大跨度鋼橋和道岔側線尾部應有不同伸縮量的鋼軌伸縮器。

                            設置鋼軌伸縮器時,在鋼軌伸縮器的50m伸縮區間,應設小阻力扣件,以保證鋼軌隨氣溫的變化進行自動的調整。

                            3、道岔的延壽

                            道岔是多部件的組合體,其中最易磨耗和損壞的部件是曲尖軌和轍叉,一般道岔的一個大修期內,需要更換3根曲尖軌和3組轍叉,為了給地鐵跨區間無縫線路提供減少更換易損部件的條件,必須有效地延長曲尖軌和轍叉的使用壽命。

                            近三十年我國鐵路有了跨越式的發展,新材料、新工藝、新結構、新技術大量出現,我國國鐵道岔技術水平已經達到和超過最發達國家道岔的水平,實現曲尖軌合金鋼鑲尖,合金鋼鑲板轍叉和合金鋼UIC33槽型護軌可使道岔部件使用壽命成倍地提高,見表3

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                            4、道岔節省占用土地和減少軌道長度

                            目前地鐵車輛段都有30~50條股道作為存車、洗車和檢修使用,轉線道岔多年來僅有一種單開道岔,在設計和布置車輛段道岔咽喉區時需占用土地和需要連接的軌道比較多。

                            一般車輛段都在大城市,土地昂貴,有的車輛段臨近城市的山區需要挖山。為了節省工程用地,我們設計車輛段使用的不對稱三開道岔,使車輛段的道岔咽喉區布置為箭羿線,如以12股道為例,僅用單開道岔布置的道岔咽喉區長度為190.388米(如圖1示)。

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                          圖1

                            用單開道岔和不對稱三開道岔兩種道岔布置道岔咽喉區長度為98.000米(如圖2示)。

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                          圖2

                            從圖1和圖2可見:

                            道岔咽喉區占地減少

                            [1-(98.000/198.388)]*100%=51.5%

                            道岔咽喉區軌道長度減少

                            [1-(325.734/1080.776)]*100%=69.8%

                            道岔咽喉區道岔數量減少

                            [1-(8/10)]*100%=20%

                            5、道岔的品種系列化、零部件通用化和產品標準化

                            1)道岔的品種系列化

                            地鐵(不含高速地鐵)道岔,應該以最少的品種滿足最大的需要為原則,進行品種系列化,推薦地鐵道岔系列化品種有:

                            ①正線上使用的60kg/m鋼軌9號(R=300m)單開道岔;

                            ②正線上使用的60kg/m鋼軌9號(R=300m)間距5.0米Y型交叉渡線;

                            ③車輛段線上使用的50kg/m鋼軌7號(R=180m)單開道岔;

                            ④車輛段線上使用的50kg/m鋼軌7號(R=180m)不對稱三開道岔;

                            ⑤車輛段線上使用的50kg/m鋼軌7號(R=180m)間距5.0米Y型交叉渡線;

                            2)道岔的零部件通用化

                            ①尖軌及尖軌附件的通用化;

                            ②轍叉及轍叉組件的通用化;

                            ③護軌及護軌組件的通用化;

                            ④不同軌道結構的墊板通用化;

                            ⑤鋼軌伸縮器及其組件的通用化;

                            3)道岔產品的標準化

                            ①道岔制造的技術條件;

                            ②道岔淬火的技術條件;

                            ③尖軌跟端鍛造的技術條件;

                            ④鋼軌焊接技術條件;

                            ⑤軌凍結接頭技術條件;

                            ⑥鋼軌絕緣粘接接頭技術條件;

                            6、道岔后連接軌道的平面尺寸

                            地鐵道岔側股通過速度提高后,為了確保行車安全必須重視連接軌道平面與速度的關系,單開道岔鋪設在車站內連接兩平行線軌道時,動車組通過道岔側線猶如通過反向曲線,道岔的側線容許速度,除決定于它本身的平面尺寸,也決定于道岔后連接軌道的平面特征,

                            單開道岔連接兩平行軌道時,道岔附帶曲線間的直線段長度參看圖3,可按下式計算:

                            f=[e-R(1-cosα)]/sinα-b 

                            式中:  e-兩平行軌道的間距    

                            R-附帶曲線的半徑

                            α-轍叉的角度          

                            b-道岔中心至道岔跟端的距離

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                          圖3

                            7、列車通過道岔后連接軌道的容許速度

                            列車通過上述條件的道岔側線,作為反向曲線考慮,其運行速度可按下列方法進行計算:

                           地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                          圖4

                              圖4示出車輛通過反向曲線時,兩個車體的位置,如以線段A1B1=A2B2=b,   當A1B1為在道岔側股上的位置,A2B2為在附帶曲線上的位置時,那么車輛在道岔側股曲線上產生的未被平衡離心加速度為 α1=V2/R1,在附帶曲線上產生的未被平衡離心加速度為α2=V2/R2,兩者離心加速度方向彼此相反。

                            車輛通過反向曲線時,未被平衡離心加速度的變化直接與b和f值有關,它可分為三種不同情況,即(1)f<b;(2)f=b;(3)f>b。在這三種條件下,未被平衡離心加速度的變化情況表示于圖4中,  如果使未被平衡離心加速度按直線變化,那么車輛由A1B1駛至A2B2位置所產生的未被平衡離心加速度增量與時間成比例。

                            f<b時,未被平衡離心加速度的增量為:

                                          ψ=Δα/Δt

                                式中      Δα=α1+α2Δt=(f+b)/V

                                因此:    ψ=(α1+α2)V/(f+b)

                              如將上式中速度單位換算為 m/sec, 

                            并以α1=V2/R1及α2=V2/R2 代入

                                則:     ψ=V3(R1+R2)/3.63 R1R2(f+b)

                            即:  

                            

                          地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

                            當f≧b時,從圖4可見未被平衡離心加速度的增量僅決定于b值,而與f值無關,因此,在這兩種條件下,道岔后的連接軌道不限速,動車組可按道岔的側股容許速度通過。

                            目前地鐵車輛種類比較多,我國地鐵車輛分類有24-21m,21-19m和19-15m三種,固定剛距分別為17m、15m、13m,按線路平面特征規定兩平行線間隔4.5m和5.0m時道岔側線速度如表4所示:

                            地鐵 提速 消噪 延壽 省土地 5大創新——我國著名道岔專家劉語冰教授 系列化地鐵道岔創新成果展示

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